Manipulating PTPRD function with ectodomain antibodies


Antibody-induced dimerization of PTPRDProtein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) are critical regulators of signal transduction but have yet to be exploited fully for drug development. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase delta (RPTPδ/PTPRD) has been shown to elicit tumor-promoting functions, including elevating SRC activity and promoting metastasis in certain cell contexts. Dimerization has been implicated in the inhibition of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs). We have generated antibodies targeting PTPRD ectodomains, with the goal of manipulating their dimerization status ectopically, thereby regulating intracellular signaling. We have validated antibody binding to endogenous PTPRD in a metastatic breast cancer cell line, CAL51, and demonstrated that a monoclonal antibody, RD-43, inhibited phosphatase activity and induced the degradation of PTPRD. Similar effects were observed following chemically-induced dimerization of its phosphatase domain. Mechanistically, RD-43 triggered the formation of PTPRD dimers in which the phosphatase activity was impaired. Subsequently, the mAb-PTPRD-dimer complex was degraded through lysosomal and proteasomal pathways, independently of secretase cleavage. Consequently, treatment with RD-43 inhibited SRC signaling and suppressed PTPRD-dependent cell invasion. Together, these findings demonstrate that manipulating RPTP function via antibodies to the extracellular segments has therapeutic potential.

Genes Dev. 2023 Sept 05